A 1: Tutor submission: Images from my autoethnography: Representing ‘Lockdown’

A 1: Tutor submission: Images from my autoethnography: Representing ‘Lockdown’

Images from my autoethnography: Representing ‘Lockdown’ 

Word count including quotations (1,493)

Word count excluding quotations (1,414)

List of illustrations

Figure 1: Screenshot image: ‘Broken Heart’ by Kamrul Hasan, 22nd March 2020. From the ‘Hold Still.’ Directors choice: ‘Helpers and heroes’’ Exhibition. National Portrait Gallery, London, 2020. Published online at: https://www.npg.org.uk/hold-still/hold-still-curators-choice/ (Accessed 14/10/2020).

Figure 2: Personal photograph. Gallagher, M. (2020a) ‘Lockdown 1: The Door.’ [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-1#8 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Figure 2: Screenshot of Mehta, R. (2020b) ‘Pandemic’ – looking beyond the branches of a tree towards sunlight behind clouds. [Online] At: http://roymehta.com/projects/lockdown.aspx (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Figure 4: Personal photograph. Gallagher, M. (2020b) ‘Lockdown 2: Invisible.’ [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Figure 5: Personal photograph. Gallagher, M. (2020c) ‘Lockdown 2: Scream’. [Online image] At: hhttps://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#4ttps://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Figure 6: Personal photograph of a book image. Matzko, C. (2003) ‘Voices #2’. [Photograph taken by M Gallagher of image on Page 136 of ‘Facades in Face: The New Photographic Portrait published by William Ewing published by Thames and Hudson, 2016]

Images from my autoethnography: Representing ‘Lockdown’ 

Abstract

This essay examines three images from my autoethnography which looks at my experience of working as a doctor from home during the Covid 19 pandemic. These images are compared with other images of lockdown, within a framework of theory and writings about visual culture. 

Structure 

Introduction

            Representations of doctors

            My images

                        Absence and presence

                        Psyche

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Introduction

This essay relates my work to visual culture about the representation of doctors in the first Covid-19 ‘Lockdown’ (Cambridge, 2020). ‘Lockdown’ can be defined as “a situation in which people are not allowed to enter or leave a building or area freely because of an emergency” (Cambridge, 2020). I apply modernist and postmodernist ideas, poststructuralist ideas of intertextuality and coding the image, and Jungian theory to this discourse. I also consider philosophers and commentators on visual culture such as Barthes, Derrida, Crimp and others, and contrast my images with other images taken during the pandemic (Barthes, 1977; Stigler, 2002; Crimp, 2014).

Representations of doctors

I see two broad approaches to ‘showing’ ‘Lockdown;’ collective and personal. The former is exemplified by Historic England’s ‘Picturing Lockdown’ and the National Portrait Gallery’s “Hold Still’ projects, both of which solicited pictures from the public (Historic England, 2020; NPG, 2020). Examples of personal ‘lockdown’ work include Mehta, Matthews, Sorochinski and San Salvatore (Mehta, 2020a; Mathews, 2020; Zhang, 2020; Giuliani, 2020).

My work

JG Ballard’s ‘Concrete Island’ is a postmodern metaphor for ‘loss of faith in technology’ as the narrator of the story crashes his car and is marooned on a motorway island (Ballard, 2011). It is a dystopian tale from which the protagonist does not escape. I also have been ‘marooned’ in ‘lockdown,’ and experienced traumas of the pandemic at “an unbridgeable distance” in video and phone consultations with patients (Crimp, 2014;94). 

My work is autoethnographic (Ellis, C et al., 2011; Adams et al., 2015). As a postmodern method it tries to “disrupt the binary nature of science and art” as it is both ‘theoretical and rigorous and emotional and personal;’ it is grounded in my experience and identity as a doctor (Ellis, C et al., 2011;8). It attempts to create meaning to “cope with the problem of living” (Adams et al., 2015;3)

Two series of images were submitted to my tutor: about the ‘place’ of ‘lockdown’ (‘Absence and Presence’), and self-portraits (‘Psyche’).

Absence and Presence

The first image, from the National Portrait Gallery’s ‘Hold Still’ exhibition (Figure 1), is contrasted with an image of my consulting room door (Figure 2) (Hasan, 2020; Gallagher, 2020a). 

Figure 1: Screenshot image: ‘Broken Heart’ by Kamrul Hasan, 22nd March 2020. From the ‘Hold Still.’ Directors choice: ‘Helpers and heroes.’ Exhibition. National Portrait Gallery. London, 2020. Published online at: https://www.npg.org.uk/hold-still/hold-still-curators-choice/ (Accessed 14/10/2020).

The denotative aspects of this image are three men with medical masks, alongside each other, looking away and down from the viewer, at something out of frame. In the background is a drawn curtain. Two of the men are of colour and the other is white. We surmise that we are in a hospital setting, that these are doctors, and we are inside a bed cubicle with the curtain drawn. The image connotes a medical setting where the doctors gaze is visible, toward the patient and they intent on ‘solving’ something. The black and white image echoes the ‘authenticity’ and supposed ‘truth’ of modernist ideas about an indexicall link to “that which was” (Meron, 2019; Barthes, 1982). 

Accompanying notes tell us that this was taken by Kamrul Hasan on 22nd March 2020 on the day in which is his father died of pneumonia. It is personal, specific and at the start of the Covid pandemic. The anchor to this image is the three masked (musketeer) doctors which relays ‘caring’ and ‘infection’ control (Barthes, 1977). Interpretation of this image is framed by what is happening today, November 2020; in contemporary visual culture these signs and this image code, ‘Covid 19’ and ‘pandemic.’ Face coverings have also become an iconic signifier of the Covid 19 pandemic; (Barthes, 1982; Chandler, 2014)

An institution “shaped the discourse” by anchoring the image with the text  ‘Helpers and Heroes’ (Crimp, 2014;91). The institution has an agenda which is “social and political;” “a group of powerless people” are presented by “another group addressed as socially powerful,” (Bolton, 1990; Rosler, 1981).

The modernist tradition that celebrates ‘technological’ and hero doctors underpins this institutions representation (Myerhoff, 1965). This could be the dominant-hegemonic reading of this image, but  a negotiated reading is probably correct (Sturken and Cartwright, 2001; Hall, 1975). Unlike many medical images it is about dying, includes racial diversity and was captured by a family member, but like most medical images over the last 400 years it is male gendered.

This next image is from my autoethnography (Gallagher, 2020a).

Figure 3: Gallagher, M. (2020a) Lockdown 1: The Door. [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-1#8 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

The denotive aspects are a door, brushed aluminium handle, part of the doorframe and part of a white wall. The door connates that this is a threshold to an indoor place. The handle suggests ‘opening’ or ‘closing:’ it is closed. This could be a liminal space with associated ritual entrances, inner performances and exits, or it could signify the idea of ‘place’ and spaces,’ utopian, heterotopic or panopticon (Turner, V, 1967; Shortt, 2015; Foucault, 1984, 2008). This door and handle invites the viewer to explore the image and themselves (Goffmann, 1956). 

This is a ‘contingent’ image which needs the dialogue of other images and perhaps textual anchors that represent the reality of consulting in a pandemic (Colberg, 2016). Within a postmodern framework its narrative will be shaped by interactions with others, but it could also be discarded or form another story. I realise that my work could be a “double system” of representation and make “contributions to both domination and the liberation of social life” (Sekula, 2016; Bolton, 1990). 

Psyche

This first image is from a series commissioned by ‘Historic Britain’ by Mehta (Mehta, 2020b) (Mehta, 2020a).

Figure 4: Screenshot of Mehta, R. (2020b) ‘Pandemic’ – looking beyond the branches of a tree towards sunlight behind clouds. [Online] At: http://roymehta.com/projects/lockdown.aspx (Accessed 14/11/2020).

The denotative aspects of this are that there are two images. To the left is the branches of an out of focus tree with clouds behind and sunshine just visible behind the clouds, and to the right is a poem called ‘The pandemic is a portal,’ which anchors this enigmatic landscape as a transportation vehicle to take us to “another world.”  

The juxtaposition is about the natural world and the fragility of man (Mehta, 2020b). It is postmodern because it is not the ‘medium specificity’ of modernist photography with its accompanying poem (Crimp, 2014)

The next images are taken from my second series about ‘Lockdown’ (Gallagher, 2020b; c).

Figure 5: Gallagher, M. (2020b) Lockdown 2: Invisible. [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Figure 6: Gallagher, M. (2020c) Lockdown 2: Scream. [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#4 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

The denotive aspects of both images are opaque, abstract, skin-coloured images of what we think is a person; the dialogue between the two suggest this. The first image is ‘slight’ and the second is a naked upper torso with mouth open; he appears to be screaming. The connotative aspects are that the first image speaks of someone who is ‘not there,’ of invisibility, signifies emotional pain and references the iconic image, ‘The Scream.’ (Munch, 1893). 

Both images have been appropriated from Voices #2 by Claudia Matzko and re-used by me in this ‘Lockdown’ series and in a similar series from 2016 about anticipatory grief (Ewing, 2006; Matzko, 2003; Gallagher, 2016).

Figure 7: Matzko, C. (2003) Voices #2. [Photograph taken by M Gallagher of image on Page 136 of ‘Facades’ in Face: The New Photographic Portrait, by William Ewing published by Thames and Hudson, 2016]

I have appropriated this image. My portraits are similar, but the context and purpose are different; for Matzko these are visual experiments, for me they are personal, specific and their uniqueness gives it meaning (Gallagher, 2017). They are example of intertextuality where I have re-written Matzko’s and my first appropriation to create a new work rooted in the text of the story of my current life (Chandler, 2014; Krauss, 1986). 

These three images connate Jungian concepts of the psyche and psychotherapy archetypes (Hopwood, 2008); “Richard Avendon might say “In focus, known; out of focus, unknown”” (Ewing, 2006;136). Derrida comments can be applied here, “The gaze from the other side…(is) ‘spectral’ also has ‘presence’ by its partial ghostly ‘absence” (Stigler, 2002; Crimp, 2014).

To Flusser, this would also be an example of “phenomenological doubt” where producing distorted images behind ground glass exploits the limitations of the photographic “apparatus” to create something of a new order (Flusser, 1983:38). 

My images counters dominant visual culture about Covid 19 and doctors; we glimpse their distress and humanity (Gerada, 2020; Lewis, 2020).  

Discussion

(This is in the body of the text). 

Conclusion

  1. It was helpful to articulate what I think about my own and other people’s images in my area of study; it is the start of having a vocabulary to talk and write about visual culture for the next essays.
  2. Knowing and understanding semiology is critical in photographic discourse. 
  3. I have explored some preliminary ideas about the representation of doctors in visual culture.

References

Adams, T. et al. (2015) Autoethnography: Understanding Qualitative Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ballard, JG (2011) Concrete Island. London: Fourth Estate.

Barthes, R. (1977) ‘The rhetoric of the image.’ In: Image-Music-Text. New York: Hill and Wang. At: https://faculty.georgetown.edu/irvinem/theory/Barthes-Rhetoric-of-the-image-ex.pdf (Accessed 06/11/2020).

Barthes, R. (1982) Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. London: Jonathan Cape.

Bolton, R. (1990) The contest of meaning: critical histories of photography. (2nd ed.) MIT, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Cambridge (2020) Cambridge Dictionary (online). At: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/lockdown (Accessed 31/10/2020).

Chandler, D. (2014) Semiotic for Beginners: Intertextuality. At: http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/S4B/sem09.html

Chandler, D. (2017) Semiotics: the basics. (3rd ed.) Oxon: Routledge.

Colberg, J. (2016) Understanding Photobooks: The form and content of the photographic book. (s.l.): Routledge.

Crimp, D. (2014) ‘The photographic activity of postmodernism’ In: October 15 pp.91–101. At: http://www.jstor.org/stable/778455?origin=JSTOR-pdf

Ellis, C et al. (2011) ‘Autoethnography: An overview’ In: Forum: Qualitative social research Sozialforschung 12 (1)

Ewing, W. (2006) Face: The New Photographic Portrait. London: Thames and Hudson.

Foucault, M. (1984) ‘Of other spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias. https://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/foucault1.pdf’ In: Architecture/Movement/Continué; (“Des Espace Autres,” March 1967 Translated from the French by Jay Miskowiec)

Foucault, M. (2008) ‘“Panopticism” excerpt from Discipline and Punish. (English translation, 1977 by Alan Sheridan, New York, Pantheon).’ In: Discipline and Punish. Multidisciplinary Global Contexts. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/252435/pdf: Indiana University Press. pp.1–12.

Gallagher, M. (2016) Bad News. At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/bad-news (Accessed 03/11/2020).

Gallagher, M. (2017) It’s not alright, PDF of a handmade book. Module submission for OCA photographic degree. At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/a-grief-observed#0

Gallagher, M. (2020a) Lockdown 1: The Door. [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-1#8 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Gallagher, M. (2020b) Lockdown 2: Invisible. [Online image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Gallagher, M. (2020c) Lockdown 2: Scream. [Online image] At: hhttps://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#4ttps://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Gerada, C. (2020) Beneath the white coat: doctors, their minds and mental health. Oxon: Taylor and Francis.

Giuliani, A. (2020) Covid 19 – San Salvatore.

Goffmann, E. (1956) The presentation of self in everyday life. At: http://monoskop.org/images/1/19/Goffman_Erving_The_Presentation_of_Self_in_Everyday_Life.pdf

Hall, S. (1975) ‘Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse’ Paper for the Council of Europe Colloquy on Training in the Critical Reading of Televisual Language. Centre for Mass Communication, University of Leicester: Centre for Cultural studies, University of Birmingham, UK. At: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/81670115.pdf (Accessed 31/10/2020).

Hasan, K. (2020) Heart Broken. [Screensave of image on ‘Hold Still’ project website] At: https://www.npg.org.uk/hold-still/images/heart-broken/ (Accessed 05/11/2020).

Historic England (2020) Historic England. Picturing Lockdown Collection. At: https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/archive/collections/photographs/picturing-lockdown/ (Accessed 14/10/2020).

Hopwood, A. (2008) Jung’s model of the psyche. At: https://www.thesap.org.uk/resources/articles-on-jungian-psychology-2/carl-gustav-jung/jungs-model-psyche/ (Accessed 01/11/2020).

Krauss, R. (1986) In: The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths. At: http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/kraussoriginality.pdf

Lewis, S. (2020) ‘Where are the photos of people dying of Covid.’ In: New York Times 2020 At: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/01/opinion/coronavirus-photography.html Publisher: nytimes.com

Mathews, D. (2020) ‘Untitled (Colonnade 4)’ – A view looking out from the covered lower walkway of Bottle Alley, showing two men walking their dogs on the beach. At: ttps://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/photos/item/HEC01/036/02/10/04 (Accessed 04/10/2020).

Matzko, C. (2003) Voices #2. [Photograph taken by M Gallagher of image on Page 136 of Facades in Face: The New Photographic Portrait published by William Ewing published by Thames and Hudson, 2016]

Mehta, R. (2020a) ‘Pandemic’ – looking beyond the branches of a tree towards sunlight behind clouds. [Online] At: http://roymehta.com/projects/lockdown.aspx (Accessed 14/11/2020).

Mehta, R. (2020b) ‘Pandemic’ – looking beyond the branches of a tree towards sunlight behind clouds. At: https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/photos/item/HEC01/036/02/07/05 (Accessed 01/10/2020).

Meron, Y. (2019) ‘Photographic (In)authenticity’ In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 4 (2) pp.60–81.

Munch, E. (1893) The Scream.

Myerhoff, W. R. L. (1965) ‘The Doctor as Culture Hero: The Routinization of Charisma’ In: Human Organization24 (3) pp.188–191. At: https://www.jstor.org/stable/44125128

NPG (2020) ‘Hold still’. At: https://www.npg.org.uk/hold-still/ (Accessed 14/10/2020).

Rosler, M. (1981) In, around, and afterthoughts (on documentary photography) (1981). Directed by Rosler, M. (s.l.). At: http://web.pdx.edu/~vcc/Seminar/Rosler_photo.pdf (Accessed 05/11/2020).

Sekula, A. (2016) Photography against the grain: essays and photo works 1973-1983. Bruges: Die Keure.

Shortt, H. (2015) ‘Liminality, space and the importance of ‘transitory dwelling places’ at work’ In: Human relations 68 (4) pp.633–658.

Stigler, B. (2002) ‘Spectographies’ In: Derrida, J. (ed.) Echographies of television. Cambridge: Polity Press pp 113-134.

Sturken, M. and Cartwright, L. (2001) Practices of Looking: an introduction to visual culture. (s.l.): Oxford University Press.

Turner, V (1967) ‘Betwixt and between: the liminal period in rites de passage. (Reprinted from the proceedings of the American Ethnological Society (1964). Symposium on new approaches to the study of religion. pp , University of Washington Press)’ In: Symposium on new approaches to the study of religion. (4th ed.) Reader in comparative religion: (s.n.). pp.4–20.

Zhang, I. R. (2020) ‘Viktoria Sorochinski’s dream-like lockdown project reconnects with the inner-self.’ In: British Journal of Photography – on line at: https://www.bjp-online.com/2020/05/viktoria-sorochinskis-inside-outside/ (Accessed 04/10/2020).

Adams, T. et al. (2015) Autoethnography: Understanding Qualitative Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ballard, JG (2011) Concrete Island. London: Fourth Estate.

Barthes, R. (1977) ‘The rhetoric of the image.’ In: Image-Music-Text. New York: Hill and Wang. At: https://faculty.georgetown.edu/irvinem/theory/Barthes-Rhetoric-of-the-image-ex.pdf (Accessed  06/11/2020).

Barthes, R. (1982) Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. London: Jonathan Cape.

Bolton, R. (1990) The contest of meaning: critical histories of photography. (2nd ed.) MIT, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Cambridge (2020) Cambridge Dictionary (online). At: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/lockdown (Accessed  31/10/2020).

Chandler, D. (2014) Semiotic for Beginners: Intertexuality. At: http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/S4B/sem09.html

Chandler, D. (2017) Semiotics: the basics. (3rd ed.) Oxon: Routledge.

Colberg, J. (2016) Understanding Photobooks: The form and content of the photographic book. (s.l.): Routledge.

Crimp, D. (2014) ‘The photographic activity of postmodernism’ In: October 15 pp.91–101. At: http://www.jstor.org/stable/778455?origin=JSTOR-pdf

Ellis, C et al. (2011) ‘Autoethanography: An overview’ In: Forum: Qualitative social research Sozialforschung12 (1)

Ewing, W. (2006) Face: The New Photographic Portrait. London: Thames and Hudson.

Foucault, M. (1984) ‘Of other spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias. https://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/foucault1.pdf’ In: Architecture/Mouvement/Continué; (“Des Espace Autres,” March 1967 Translated from the French by Jay Miskowiec)

Foucault, M. (2008) ‘“Panopticism” excerpt from Discipline and Punish. (English translation, 1977 by Alan Sheridan, New York, Pantheon).’ In: Discipline and Punish. Mutidisciplinary Global Contexts. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/252435/pdf: Indiana University Press. pp.1–12.

Gallagher, M. (2017) It’s not alright, PDF of a hand made book. Module submission for OCA photographic degree. At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/a-grief-observed#0

Gallagher, M. (2020a) Lockdown 1: The Door. [On line image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-1#8 (Accessed  14/11/2020).

Gallagher, M. (2020b) Lockdown 2: Invisible. [On line image] At: https://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed  14/11/2020).

Gallagher, M. (2020c) Lockdown 2: Scream. [On line image] At: hhttps://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#4ttps://morris-gallagher.format.com/lockdown-2#1 (Accessed  14/11/2020).

Gerada, C. (2020) Beneath the white coat: doctors, their minds and mental health. Oxon: Taylor and Francis.

Giuliani, A. (2020) Covid 19 – San Salvatore.

Goffmann, E. (1956) The presentation of self in everyday life. At: http://monoskop.org/images/1/19/Goffman_Erving_The_Presentation_of_Self_in_Everyday_Life.pdf

Hall, S. (1975) ‘Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse’ Paper for the Council of Europe Colloquy on Training in the Critical Reading of Televisual Language. Centre for Mass Communication, University of Leicester: Centre for Cultural studies, University of Birmingham, UK. At: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/81670115.pdf (Accessed  31/10/2020).

Historic England (2020) Historic England. Picturing Lockdown Collection. At: https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/archive/collections/photographs/picturing-lockdown/ (Accessed  14/10/2020).

Hopwood, A. (2008) Jung’s model of the psyche. At: https://www.thesap.org.uk/resources/articles-on-jungian-psychology-2/carl-gustav-jung/jungs-model-psyche/ (Accessed  01/11/2020).

Krauss, R. (1986) In: The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths. At: http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/kraussoriginality.pdf

Lewis, S. (2020) ‘Where are the photos of people dying of Covid.’ In: New York Times 2020 At: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/01/opinion/coronavirus-photography.html Publisher: nytimes.com

Mathews, D. (2020) ‘Untitled (Colonnade 4)’ – A view looking out from the covered lower walkway of Bottle Alley, showing two men walking their dogs on the beach. At: ttps://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/photos/item/HEC01/036/02/10/04 (Accessed  04/10/2020).

Matzko, C. (2003) Voices #2. [Photograph of image on Page 136 of Facades in Face: The New Photographic Portrait published by Wliiam Ewing published by Thames and Hudson, 2016]

Mehta, R. (2020a) ‘Pandemic’ – looking beyond the branches of a tree towards sunlight behind clouds. At: https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/photos/item/HEC01/036/02/07/05 (Accessed  01/10/2020).

Mehta, R. (2020b) ‘Pandemic’ – looking beyond the branches of a tree towards sunlight behind clouds. [Online] At: http://roymehta.com/projects/lockdown.aspx (Accessed  14/11/2020).

Meron, Y. (2019) ‘Photographic (In)authenticity’ In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 4 (2) pp.60–81.

Moesby, A. (2020) ‘Gathering Dust (Staying Home)’ – travel books and typewriter on a shelf. At: https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/photos/results/?searchType=HE%20Archive&search=Parent:115461209 (Accessed  01/10/2020).

Munch, E. (1893) The Scream.

Myerhoff, W. R. L. (1965) ‘The Doctor as Culture Hero: The Routinization of Charisma’ In: Human Organization24 (3) pp.188–191. At: https://www.jstor.org/stable/44125128

NPG (2020a) ‘Hold still’. At: https://www.npg.org.uk/hold-still/ (Accessed  14/10/2020).

NPG (2020b) Hold Still. Directors choice: ‘Helpers and heroes’. At: https://www.npg.org.uk/hold-still/hold-still-curators-choice/ (Accessed  14/10/2020).

Rosler, M. (1981) In, around, and afterthoughts (on documentary photography) (1981). Directed by Rosler, M. (s.l.). At: http://web.pdx.edu/~vcc/Seminar/Rosler_photo.pdf (Accessed  05/11/2020).

Shortt, H. (2015) ‘Liminality, space and the importance of ‘transitory dwelling places’ st work’ In: Human relations 68 (4) pp.633–658.

Sturken, M and Cartwright, L (2001) Practices of Looking: an introduction to visual culture. (s.l.): Oxford University Press.

Turner, V (1967) ‘Betwixt and between: the liminal period in rites de passage. (Reprinted from the proceedings of the American Ethanological Society (1964). Symposium on new approaches to the study of religion. pp , University of Washington Press)’ In: Symposium on new approaches to the study of religion. (4th ed.) Reader in comparative religion: (s.n.). pp.4–20.

Zhang, I. R. (2020) ‘Viktoria Sorochinski’s dream-like lockdown project reconnects with the inner-self.’ In: British Journal of Photography – on line At: https://www.bjp-online.com/2020/05/viktoria-sorochinskis-inside-outside/ (Accessed  04/10/2020).